Aug 14 – The Rabaa massacre. Egyptian security forces raided two camps of protesters in Cairo: one at al-Nahda Square and a larger one at Rabaa al-Adawiya Square. The two sites had been occupied by Egyptians protesting the military coup. According to Human Rights Watch, a minimum of 817 people and more likely at least 1,000 were killed in Rabaa Square on August 14. According to the Egyptian Health Ministry, 638 people were. The National Coalition for Supporting Legitimacy estimates the number of deaths from the Rabaa al-Adawiya Mosque sit-in to 2,600.

Aug 12 – Plans to remove the camps are postponed. The sit-ins grow as more protestors arrive, defying government warnings.

Aug 11 – The Egyptian military declares it will remove the sit-ins within 24 hours.

July 27 – Demonstrations against the military coup and pro-Morsi continue. Security forces clash with protesters leaving 80 dead at the two major camps.

July 3 – Military ousts Morsi, suspends constitution and imposes interim technocrat government. Supporters of the ousted president and people protesting against the military coup begin mass sit-ins demanding that he is reinstated. Brotherhood figures are arrested by the military.

July 2 – Military officials disclose main details of their plan if no agreement is reached: replacing Morsi with an interim administration, cancelling the Islamist-based constitution and calling elections in a year.

July 1 – Large-scale demonstrations continue, and Egypt’s powerful military gives the two sides 48 hours to resolve their disputes, or it will impose its own solution.

June 30 – The anniversary of President Morsi’s first year in office. Many Egyptians take to the streets of Cairo calling on him to step down. The Tamarod movement helped launch the June 2013 Egyptian protests which preceded the coup d’état. Recent audio tapes secretly recorded in the offices of the deputy ministers to Al-Sisi – and authenticated by independent expert analysis from France – establish the movement as an arm of the military coup. Clashes outside the Brotherhood’s headquarters result in eight deaths.

June 23 – A mob beats to death four Egyptian Shiites in a village on the edge of Cairo.

May 7 – Morsi reshuffles his Cabinet. Officials say the changes aim to finalise long-stalled negotiations with the International Monetary Fund for a crucial $4.8 billion loan, which requires reductions to fuel and food subsidies. A deal on the loan has still not been reached.

April 7 – A Muslim mob attacks the main cathedral of the Coptic Orthodox Church as Christians hold a funeral and protest there over four Christians killed in sectarian violence the day before.

Feb – March 2013 – Protests rage in Port Said and other cities for weeks, with dozens more dying in clashes.

Jan 25, 2013 – Protests are held against Morsi on the 2-year anniversary of the start of the revolt against Mubarak, and clashes erupt in many places.




Dec 29 – The Egyptian Central Bank announces that foreign reserves – drained to $15 billion from $36 billion in 2010 – have fallen to a “critical minimum” and tries to stop a sharp slide in the value of the Egyptian pound. It now stands at just over 7 to the dollar, compared to 5.5 to the dollar in 2010.

Dec 15, Dec 22 – In the two-round referendum, Egyptians approved the constitution, with 63.8 per cent voting in favour. Turnout was low. On 22 November Morsi issued a declaration immunising his decrees from challenge and seeking to protect the work of the Constituent Assembly drafting the new constitution. The declaration also required a retrial of those accused in the Mubarak-era killings of protesters, who had been acquitted, and extended the mandate of the constituent assembly by two months. Additionally, the declaration authorized Morsi to take any measures necessary to protect the revolution. Liberal and secular groups previously walked out of the constitutional constituent assembly because they believed that it would impose strict Islamic practices, while Muslim Brotherhood backers threw their support behind Morsi.

Dec 8 – Morsi annulled his temporary decree which had expanded his presidential authority and removed judicial review of his decrees, an Islamist official said, but added that the results of the temporary declaration would still stand.

Dec 4 – More than 100,000 protesters march on the presidential palace, demanding the cancellation of the referendum and the writing of a new constitution. The next day, Islamists attack an anti-Morsi sit-in, sparking street battles that leave at least 10 dead.

Nov 30 – Islamists in the constituent assembly rush to complete the draft of the constitution. Morsi sets a Dec 15 date for a referendum.

Nov 22 – Morsi unilaterally decrees greater powers for himself, giving his decisions immunity from judicial review and barring the courts from dissolving the constituent assembly and the upper house of parliament. The move sparks days of protests. Millions of protesters began protesting against Morsi, after his government announced a temporary constitutional declaration that in effect granted the president unlimited powers. Morsi deemed the decree necessary to protect the elected constituent assembly from a planned dissolution by judges appointed during the Mubarak era. The demonstrations were organised by Egyptian opposition organisations, and individuals, mainly liberals, leftists, secularists and Christians. Demonstrators gathered outside the presidential palace, which in turn was surrounded by tanks and armoured vehicles of the Republican Guard. The anti-Morsi protesters in Cairo were estimated at 200,000, while almost as many supporters of Morsi gathered in Cairo to show support. A number of Morsi’s advisers resigned in protest, and many judges spoke out against his actions as well. Resignations were tendered by the director of state broadcasting,

Nov 19 – Members of liberal parties and representatives of Egypt’s churches withdraw from the 100-member assembly writing the constitution, protesting attempts by Islamists to impose their will.

August – New prime minister Hisham Qandil appoints a cabinet dominated by figures from the outgoing government, technocrats and Islamists, but excluding secular and liberal forces.

Aug 12 – Morsi orders the retirement of the top Mubarak-era leadership of the military.

Aug 2 - Egypt’s Prime Minister Hisham Qandil announced his 35 member cabinet comprising 28 newcomers including four from the influential Muslim Brotherhood, six others and the former military ruler Tantawi as the Defence Minister from the previous Government

July 10 – The Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt negated the decision by President Mohamed Morsi to call the nation’s parliament back into session.

July 8 – Egypt’s new president Mohamed Morsi said that he’s overriding a military edict that dissolved the country’s elected parliament and calling on lawmakers back into session.

June 30 – Morsi takes his oath of office.

Morsi presidency

June 16-17 – Egyptians vote in the presidential run-off between Morsi and Shafiq. Morsi wins with 51.7 per cent of the vote.

June 14 – The Supreme Constitutional Court orders the dissolving of the lower house of parliament.

May – Military leaders announce the end of the state of emergency in place since Anwar al-Sadat’s assassination in 1981.

May – The first round of voting in presidential elections has a field of 13 candidates. Morsi and Ahmed Shafiq, the last prime minister under Mubarak, emerge as the top two finishers, to face each other in a run-off.

Feb 15 – The Muslim Brotherhood wins nearly half the seats in Egypt’s lower house. The ultraconservative Salafis take roughly a quarter of the other seats.




December – National unity government headed by new Prime Minister Kamal al-Ganzouri takes office.

Nov 28 – Egypt held its first parliamentary election since the previous regime had been in power. Turnout was high and there were no reports of irregularities or violence, although members of some parties broke the ban on campaigning at polling places by handing out pamphlets and banners.

Mar 26 – A constituent assembly, founded in 26 March 2012, started to work for implementing a new constitution.

Mar 19 -A constitutional referendum was held on 19 March 2011.

February – The high level military command of Egypt announced that both the constitution and the parliament of Egypt had been dissolved. The parliamentary election was to be held in September.

Feb 11 – Mubarak is forced to step down and a period of military rule begins.

January – Islamist parties emerge as victors of drawn-out parliamentary elections.

Jan 30  – Mohamed Morsi and several other Brotherhood figures escape from prison.

Jan-Feb – After 30 years in power, Egypt’s President Hosni Mubarak faces mass opposition in the form of nationwide demonstrations.