Inspired by the 2010 Tunisian revolution, Egyptian opposition groups led demonstrations and labour strikes countrywide, culminating in President Hosni Mubarak’s ouster.

Egypt’s military assumed national leadership until a new parliament was in place in early 2012; later that same year, Mohammed Morsi won the presidential election.

Following protests in the spring of 2013 against Morsi’s government and the Muslim Brotherhood, the Egyptian Armed Forces removed Morsi from power in July 2013 and replaced him with the interim president Adly Mansour, in a military coup.

The Egyptian military, with Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, was and still is in power in Egypt.

In January 2014, voters approved a new constitution by referendum and in May 2014 they elected Abdel Fattah al-Sisi as president, in contested elections. READ MORE IN TIMELINE

Human Rights Organisations describe the repression of political adversaries, as the Muslim Brotherhood, as the worst in modern time. Sine the military coup thousands of civilians have been arrested, and out in prison without trial. Many hundreds have been killed.


27 GOVERNORATES: Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah (Alexandria), Al Isma’iliyah (Ismailia), Al Jizah (Giza), Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah (Cairo), Al Qalyubiyah, Al Uqsur (Luxor), Al Wadi al Jadid (New Valley), As Suways (Suez), Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa’id (Port Said), Dumyat (Damietta), Janub Sina’ (South Sinai), Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina’ (North Sinai), Suhaj

LEGAL SYSTEM: mixed legal system based on Napoleonic civil and penal law, Islamic religious law, and vestiges of colonial-era laws; judicial review of the constitutionality of laws by the Supreme Constitutional Court

EXECUTIVE BRANCH: Chief of state: General Abdel Fattah Said AL-SISI (since 8 June 2014)

Head of government: Prime Minister Sherif ISMAIL (since 12 September 2015)

Cabinet: Cabinet sworn in 19 September 2015 (third prime minister since 3rd of July 2013)

Elections: president elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term);

The situation is somewhat unique at the moment after the military coup in 2013, when the general al-Sisi took power. After that a highly contested presidential election was held on 26-28 May 2014 (next one is said to be held in May 2018) where al-Sisi won with a 96,6% majority.

Prime minister is appointed by the president, and approved by the House of Representatives (House of Representative is not elected till the moment, expected to have it in Nov-Dec 2015)


Unicameral House of Representatives (Majlis Al-Nowaab) that consist of up to 595 members; 448 members to be in elected in single- and multi-seat districts by simple majority vote, 120 members to be elected in party-list districts by simple majority vote, and up to 27 seats as presidential appointees. Elections were initially scheduled for late December 2014, changed several times, latest to 18-19 October 2015.

Latest democratic elections were held from 28 November 2011. The Election Commission announced the participation of 62% of eligible voters, “the highest number since the days of Pharaoh” and it was judged the first honest national election of any sort held in Egypt since the overthrow of the monarchy in 1952. 

The results was a great victory for the party Freedom and Justice Party, who won 37,5% of the votes, together with their partner parties, Democratic Alliance. As a strong number two came the Islamist bloc with 27.8 %.

New Wafd Party  got 9.2%, Egyptian Bloc 8.9%, Al-Wasat Party 3.7%, The Revolution Continues Alliance 2.8%, Reform and Development Party 2.2%, National Party of Egypt 1.6%, Freedom Party 1.9%, Egyptian Citizen Party 0.9%, other 3.5%.


Seats by party: Democratic Alliance of Egypt 235, Alliance for Egypt (Islamic Bloc) 123, New Wafd Party 38, Egyptian Bloc 35, Al-Wasat 10, Reform and Development Party 9, The Revolution Continues Alliance 8, National Party of Egypt 5, Egyptian Citizen Party 4, Freedom Party 4, independents 21, other 6, SCAF appointees 10.

 In the vote for the advisory council, the result was as follows:

Democratic Alliance for Egypt 45%, Alliance for Egypt (Islamic Bloc) 28.6%, New Wafd Party 8.5%, Egyptian Bloc 5.4%, other 12.5%; seats by party – Democratic Alliance for Egypt 105, Alliance for Egypt (Islamic Bloc) 45, New Wafd Party 14, Egyptian Bloc 8, other 4, independents 4, presidential appointees 90.

The parliament was dissolved by the 15th of June 2012  then the legislative power moved to SCAF (Supreme Council Of Armed Forces) who issued that decision of dissolving the parliament following a court decision. After the election of the President Morsi, he annulated the dissolving decision and called the parliament to reconvene on 8th of July 2012 & called for early parliament elections within 60 days from the date of writing the constitution. 3 days late the constitution court halt this decision and legislative power was kept in the hands of SCAF.

 The democratically elected parliament (Shura Council) has been canceled as well on the coup d’Etat day and since then the military is in power in Egypt.


 Highest court(s): Supreme Constitutional Court or SCC (consists of the court president and 10 justices); the SCC serves as the final court of arbitrator on the constitutionality of laws and conflicts between lower courts regarding jurisdiction and rulings;

 Court of Cassation (CC) (consists of the court president and 550 judges organised in circuits with cases heard by panels of 5 judges); the CC is the highest appeals body for civil and criminal cases, also known as “ordinary justices”;

 Supreme Administrative Court (SAC) – consists of the court president and organised in circuits with cases heard by panels of 5 judges); the SAC is the highest court of the State Council judge selection and term of office: under the 2014 constitution, all judges and justices selected by the Supreme Judiciary Council and appointed by the president of the Republic; tenure NA

Subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; courts of limited jurisdiction; Family Court (established in 2004).